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For healthcare and postal districts, and a number of other governmental and non-governmental organisations such as the churches, there are other long-standing methods of subdividing Scotland for the purposes of administration.
City status in the United Kingdom is conferred by letters patent. Scots law has a basis derived from Roman law ,  combining features of both uncodified civil law , dating back to the Corpus Juris Civilis , and common law with medieval sources.
The terms of the Treaty of Union with England in guaranteed the continued existence of a separate legal system in Scotland from that of England and Wales.
Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the s. Scots law provides for three types of courts responsible for the administration of justice: The supreme civil court is the Court of Session , although civil appeals can be taken to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom or before 1 October , the House of Lords.
The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. The sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court, hearing most cases.
There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country. These were gradually replaced by Justice of the Peace Courts from to The Court of the Lord Lyon regulates heraldry.
For three centuries the Scots legal system was unique for being the only national legal system without a parliament.
This ended with the advent of the Scottish Parliament in , which legislates for Scotland. Many features within the system have been preserved.
Within criminal law, the Scots legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts: There is, however, the possibility of a retrial where new evidence emerges at a later date that might have proven conclusive in the earlier trial at first instance, where the person acquitted subsequently admits the offence or where it can be proved that the acquittal was tainted by an attempt to pervert the course of justice — see the provisions of the Double Jeopardy Scotland Act Many laws differ between Scotland and the other parts of the United Kingdom, and many terms differ for certain legal concepts.
Manslaughter , in England and Wales, is broadly similar to culpable homicide in Scotland, and arson is called wilful fire raising.
Indeed, some acts considered crimes in England and Wales, such as forgery, are not so in Scotland. Scots juries, sitting in criminal cases, consist of fifteen jurors, which is three more than is typical in many countries.
Prior to , the Highlands and Islands Medical Service provided state-funded medical care to people in the Highlands and Islands.
In , the NHS in Scotland had around , staff including more than 47, nurses, midwives and health visitors and over 3, consultants.
There are also more than 12, doctors, family practitioners and allied health professionals, including dentists, opticians and community pharmacists, who operate as independent contractors providing a range of services within the NHS in return for fees and allowances.
Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries.
Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have also been important employers from the s, especially in the north-east of Scotland.
In February , the Centre for Economics and Business Research concluded that "Scotland receives no net subsidy" from the UK, as greater per capita tax generation in Scotland balanced out greater per capita public spending.
In the final quarter of , the Scottish economy contracted by 0. Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland, with many large finance firms based there, including: Edinburgh was ranked 15th in the list of world financial centres in , but fell to 37th in , following damage to its reputation,  and in was ranked 56th out of Although Scotland has a long military tradition predating its union with England, : More than 4, Scots serve in the British Army around the world.
A single front-line Royal Air Force base is located in Scotland. RAF Lossiemouth , located in Moray , is the most northerly air defence fighter base in the United Kingdom and is home to three fast-jet squadrons equipped with the Eurofighter Typhoon.
Because of their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of Scotland have housed many sensitive defence establishments.
The Scottish education system has always been distinct from the rest of the United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education.
Formal primary education begins at approximately 5 years old and lasts for 7 years P1—P7 ; children in Scotland study Standard Grades , or Intermediate qualifications between the ages of 14 and These are being phased out and replaced by the National Qualifications of the Curriculum for Excellence.
The school leaving age is 16, after which students may choose to remain at school and study for Access , Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher qualifications.
There are fifteen Scottish universities , some of which are amongst the oldest in the world. Young Students are defined as those under 25, without children, marriage, civil partnership or cohabiting partner, who have not been outside of full-time education for more than three years.
A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland bagpipe , a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe called the chanter , which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag.
Bagpipe bands , featuring bagpipes and various types of drums, and showcasing Scottish music styles while creating new ones, have spread throughout the world.
Scotland has a literary heritage dating back to the early Middle Ages. The earliest extant literature composed in what is now Scotland was in Brythonic speech in the 6th century, but is preserved as part of Welsh literature.
Barrie and George MacDonald. The image of St. Andrew , martyred while bound to an X-shaped cross, first appeared in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of William I.
Although there is no official national anthem of Scotland ,  Flower of Scotland is played on special occasions and sporting events such as football and rugby matches involving the Scotland national teams and since is also played at the Commonwealth Games after it was voted the overwhelming favourite by participating Scottish athletes.
Scottish cuisine has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own but shares much with wider British and European cuisine as a result of local and foreign influences, both ancient and modern.
Traditional Scottish dishes exist alongside international foodstuffs brought about by migration. Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in Television in Scotland is largely the same as UK-wide broadcasts, however, the national broadcaster is BBC Scotland , a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation , the publicly funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom.
Scotland also has some programming in the Gaelic language. BBC Alba is the national Gaelic-language channel. Scotland has a number of production companies which produce films and television programmes for Scottish, UK and international audiences.
Distinctive features of the national sporting culture include the Highland games , curling and shinty.
Golf in Scotland is cheaper and more widely played than in other countries. The Scottish Football Association SFA , the second-oldest national football association in the world, is the main governing body for football in Scotland.
Celtic, Rangers and Dundee United have also reached and lost European finals, the most recent of these being in Highlands and Islands Airports operates eleven airports across the Highlands , Orkney , Shetland and the Western Isles , which are primarily used for short distance, public service operations.
There are currently two Scottish-based airlines: Hebridean Air Services and Loganair. Network Rail owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while Transport Scotland retains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland.
The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland , while the remainder of the road network is managed by local authorities.
Bus transport was privatized in the s. Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and outlying islands. Ferries serving both the inner and outer Hebrides are principally operated by the state-owned enterprise Caledonian MacBrayne.
Services to the Northern Isles are operated by Serco. Other routes, served by multiple companies, connect southwest Scotland to Northern Ireland.
Additional routes are operated by local authorities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Scotland disambiguation.
Various Predominantly " Flower of Scotland ". Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. Saint Andrew Saint Columba. Prehistory of Scotland and Scotland during the Roman Empire.
Timeline of prehistoric Scotland. Scotland in the early modern period. Scotland in the modern era. Fauna of Scotland and Flora of Scotland.
Languages of Scotland , Religion in Scotland , and Scottish people. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
Scottish art and Media of Scotland. Scottish people and National symbols of Scotland. Nuclear power in Scotland and Renewable energy in Scotland.
Retrieved 9 December Retrieved 8 January Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 13 September This means that not only totally foreign independent countries such as France or Russia See Moffat, Alistair Before Scotland: The Story of Scotland Before History.
A Very Short Introduction. Brief Interludes , in Edwards, Kevin J. Scotland After the Ice Age: Retrieved 6 July The Oxford Companion to Scottish History.
National Archives of the United Kingdom. King Robert the Bruce reprint ed. The National Archives of the United Kingdom.
Chronology of Scottish History. A History of the Dispossessed, The Scottish Nation — From that point on anti-union demonstrations were common in the capital.
In November rioting spread to the south west, that stronghold of strict Calvinism and covenanting tradition. The House of Lords.
Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 23 December A study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow and their Activities". The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography.
Learning and Teaching Scotland. The Origins of Scottish Nationhood. The social transformation of the Scottish Highlands ed.
Finlay, Scotland in the Twentieth Century Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, , pp. Asymmetry and Processes of Re-symmetrization in Europe Aldershot: Ashgate, , p.
Manchester University Press, , p. MacKenzie, "The second city of the Empire: Glasgow — imperial municipality", in F. Gilbert, eds, Imperial Cities: Landscape, Display and Identity , pp.
Lee, Scotland and the United Kingdom: Cairncross, The Scottish Economy: Glasgow University Press, , p. Roberts, The Jacobite Wars , pp. Edinburgh University Press, , p.
Richards, The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural Turmoil Devine, The Scottish Nation , pp.
Robertson, "The Development of an Urban University: Glasgow, —", History of Education Quarterly , Winter , vol.
Rayner-Canham, Chemistry was Their Life: Finlay, "National identity in Crisis: Archived from the original on 3 October Retrieved 1 August Wykeham, Fighter Command Manchester: Buchanan, Scotland Langenscheidt, 3rd edn.
Howarth, The Shetland Bus: Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 19 September Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 2 May Retrieved 7 September Pages and Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 21 March Archived from the original on 28 November Retrieved 11 June Archived from the original on 6 January Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 21 September The same temperature was also recorded in Braemar on 10 January and at Altnaharra , Highland , on 30 December Retrieved 23 March Archived from the original on 8 October Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 10 January Retrieved 3 January Retrieved 5 December Retrieved 24 January National Records of Scotland.
Retrieved 12 February Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 1 May Births, stillbirths, deaths, marriages and civil partnerships, numbers and rates, Scotland, quarterly, to " PDF.
General Register Office for Scotland. Retrieved 22 March Phonology in Varieties of English: Scots in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Vol.
Retrieved 27 May Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 26 September Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 5 February Archived copy as title link CS1 maint: Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 28 January Procession of the Crown of Scotland".
Retrieved 9 July Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 4 January Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 29 January Last month MPs voted in favour of a total ban on smoking in enclosed public spaces in England, which is due to come into effect in the summer of Northern Ireland is introducing a ban in April next year, while no date has been set yet in Wales.
Who runs the Scottish Government". Retrieved 11 January Before-and-after and party strength maps". SNP lose a third of seats amid Tory surge".
Retrieved 20 June SNP wins 56 of 59 seats in Scots landslide". Retrieved 17 May Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 22 December First Minister of Scotland.
Retrieved 12 April The birth of a parliament". Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 4 October Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 10 September Referendum to be held on 18 September, ".
Who is Lord Smith of Kelvin? Retrieved 24 June The University of Edinburgh School of Law. Archived from the original on 22 November Retrieved 22 October The Scottish legal system and its courts was to remain unchanged": Archived from the original on 14 November Udal Law remains relevant to land law in Orkney and Shetland: Law Society of Scotland.
Archived from the original PDF on 25 September Retrieved 13 March Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 11 August Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 28 June Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 31 July The religious change energised the crofters and separated them from the landlords; it helped prepare them for their successful and violent challenge to the landlords in the s through the Highland Land League.
In three Independent Crofter candidates were elected to Parliament, which listened to their pleas. The results included explicit security for the Scottish smallholders; the legal right to bequeath tenancies to descendants; and the creation of a Crofting Commission.
The Crofters as a political movement faded away by , and the Liberal Party gained their votes. The Scottish Reformation achieved partial success in the Highlands.
Roman Catholicism remained strong in some areas, owing to remote locations and the efforts of Franciscan missionaries from Ireland, who regularly came to celebrate Mass.
Although the presence of Roman Catholicism has faded, there remain significant Catholic strongholds within the Highlands and Islands such as Moidart and Morar on the mainland and South Uist and Barra in the southern Outer Hebrides.
The remoteness of the region and the lack of a Gaelic-speaking clergy undermined the missionary efforts of the established church.
The later 18th century saw somewhat greater success, owing to the efforts of the SSPCK missionaries and to the disruption of traditional society after the Battle of Culloden in In the 19th century, the evangelical Free Churches, which were more accepting of Gaelic language and culture, grew rapidly, appealing much more strongly than did the established church.
For the most part, however, the Highlands are considered predominantly Protestant, loyal to the Church of Scotland. The Outer Hebrides have been described as the last bastion of Calvinism in Britain  and the Sabbath remains widely observed.
Inverness and the surrounding area has a majority Protestant population, with most locals belonging to either The Kirk or the Free Church of Scotland.
The church maintains a noticeable presence within the area, with church attendance notably higher than in other Scottish cities.
Religion continues to play an important role in Highland culture, with Sabbath observance still widely practised, particularly in the Hebrides.
In traditional Scottish geography , the Highlands refers to that part of Scotland north-west of the Highland Boundary Fault , which crosses mainland Scotland in a near-straight line from Helensburgh to Stonehaven.
However the flat coastal lands that occupy parts of the counties of Nairnshire , Morayshire , Banffshire and Aberdeenshire are often excluded as they do not share the distinctive geographical and cultural features of the rest of the Highlands.
The north-east of Caithness , as well as Orkney and Shetland , are also often excluded from the Highlands, although the Hebrides are usually included.
The Highland area, as so defined, differed from the Lowlands in language and tradition, having preserved Gaelic speech and customs centuries after the anglicisation of the latter; this led to a growing perception of a divide, with the cultural distinction between Highlander and Lowlander first noted towards the end of the 14th century.
In Aberdeenshire , the boundary between the Highlands and the Lowlands is not well defined. A much wider definition of the Highlands is that used by the Scotch Whisky industry.
Highland Single Malts are produced at distilleries north of an imaginary line between Dundee and Greenock ,  thus including all of Aberdeenshire and Angus.
Inverness is traditionally regarded as the capital of the Highlands,  although less so in the Highland parts of Aberdeenshire , Angus , Perthshire and Stirlingshire which look more to Aberdeen , Perth , Dundee and Stirling as their commercial centres.
Under some of the wider definitions in use, Aberdeen could be considered the largest city in the Highlands, although it does not share the recent Gaelic cultural history typical of the Highlands proper.
The Highland Council area, created as one of the local government regions of Scotland , has been a unitary council area since The council area excludes a large area of the southern and eastern Highlands, and the Western Isles , but includes Caithness.
Highlands is sometimes used, however, as a name for the council area, as in Highlands and Islands Fire and Rescue Service. Northern , as in Northern Constabulary , is also used to refer to the area covered by the fire and rescue service.
This area consists of the Highland council area and the island council areas of Orkney , Shetland and the Western Isles.
Much of the Highlands area overlaps the Highlands and Islands area. An electoral region called Highlands and Islands is used in elections to the Scottish Parliament: Highlands and Islands has, however, different meanings in different contexts.
Northern , as in Northern Constabulary , refers to the same area as that covered by the fire and rescue service.
There have been trackways from the Lowlands to the Highlands since prehistoric times. Many traverse the Mounth , a spur of mountainous land that extends from the higher inland range to the North Sea slightly north of Stonehaven.
Although most of the Highlands is geographically on the British mainland, it is somewhat less accessible than the rest of Britain; thus most UK couriers categorise it separately, alongside Northern Ireland , the Isle of Man , and other offshore islands.
They thus charge additional fees for delivery to the Highlands, or exclude the area entirely. Whilst the physical remoteness from the largest population centres inevitably leads to higher transit cost, there is confusion and consternation over the scale of the fees charged and the effectiveness of their communication,  and the use of the word Mainland in their justification.
Since the charges are often based on postcode areas, many far less remote areas, including some which are traditionally considered part of the lowlands, are also subject to these charges.
This, however, applies only to mail items and not larger packages which are dealt with by its Parcelforce division. Or sign up in the traditional way.
Sign up Login Login. Learn English, French and other languages Reverso Localize: This part of Scotland is largely composed of ancient rocks from the Cambrian and Precambrian periods which were uplifted during the later Caledonian Orogeny.
Smaller formations of Lewisian gneiss in the northwest are up to 3 billion years old. These foundations are interspersed with many igneous intrusions of a more recent age, the remnants of which have formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms and the Cuillin of Skye.
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Senden Sie uns gern einen neuen Eintrag. Proceedings of the Society. Although most of the Highlands is geographically on the British mainland, it is somewhat less accessible Beste Spielothek in Schwarzenbronn finden the rest of Britain; thus most UK couriers categorise it separately, alongside Northern Irelandthe Isle of Manand other offshore islands.
Scotland and France in the Enlightenment. Under some of the wider definitions in use, Aberdeen could be considered the largest city in the Zweite eishockey bundesliga, although it does not share the recent Gaelic cultural history typical of the Highlands proper.
Northernas in Northern Constabularyrefers to the same twenty 20 as casino erfahrungen forum covered by the fire and rescue service. The area is very sparsely populated, with many mountain ranges dominating the region, and includes the highest mountain in the British IslesBen Nevis.
The Great Glen is formed along a transform fault which divides the Grampian Mountains to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands.
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The Scottish highlands is the only area in the British Isles to have the taiga biome as it features concentrated populations of Scots pine forest: Between the 15th century and the 20th century, the area differed from most of the Lowlands in terms of language.
The terms are sometimes used interchangeably but have different meanings in their respective languages. Scottish English in its Highland form is the predominant language of the area today, though Highland English has been influenced by Gaelic speech to a significant extent.
While the Highland line broadly followed the geography of the Grampians in the south, it continued in the north, cutting off the north-eastern areas, that is Caithness , Orkney and Shetland , from the more Gaelic Highlands and Hebrides.
Historically, the major social unit of the Highlands was the clan. Scottish kings, particularly James VI , saw clans as a challenge to their authority; the Highlands was seen by many as a lawless region.
Following the Union of the Crowns , James VI had the military strength to back up any attempts to impose some control.
The result was, in , the Statutes of Iona which started the process of integrating clan leaders into Scottish society.
The gradual changes continued into the 19th century, as clan chiefs thought of themselves less as patriarchal leaders of their people and more as commercial landlords.
The first effect on the clansmen who were their tenants was the change to rents being payable in money rather than in kind.
Later, rents were increased as Highland landowners sought to increase their income. This was followed, mostly in the period , by agricultural improvement that often particularly in the Western Highlands involved clearance of the population to make way for large scale sheep farms.
Displaced tenants were set up in crofting communities in the process. The crofts were intended not to provide all the needs of their occupiers; they were intended to work in other industries such as kelping and fishing.
Crofters came to rely substantially on seasonal migrant work, particularly in the Lowlands. This gave impetus to the learning of English, which was seen by many rural Gaelic speakers to be the essential "language of work".
Older historiography attributes the collapse of the clan system to the aftermath of the Jacobite risings. This is now thought less influential by historians.
Following the Jacobite rising of the British government enacted a series of laws to try to suppress the clan system , including bans on the bearing of arms and the wearing of tartan , and limitations on the activities of the Scottish Episcopal Church.
Most of this legislation was repealed by the end of the 18th century as the Jacobite threat subsided.
There was soon a rehabilitation of Highland culture. Tartan was adopted for Highland regiments in the British Army, which poor Highlanders joined in large numbers in the era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars — Tartan had largely been abandoned by the ordinary people of the region, but in the s, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe.
Individual clan tartans were largely designated in this period and they became a major symbol of Scottish identity. The Highlands before were very poor and traditional, and were not much affected by the uplift of the Scottish Enlightenment or the Industrial Revolution that was sweeping the Lowlands of Scotland.
The period of the Napoleonic wars brought prosperity, optimism, and economic growth to the Highlands. The economy grew thanks to wages paid in industries such as kelping in which kelp was burned for the useful chemicals obtained from the ashes , fisheries, and weaving, as well as large-scale infrastructure spending such as the Caledonian Canal project.
Service in the Army was also attractive to young men from the Highlands, who sent pay home and retired there with their army pensions.
Landowners were increasingly market-oriented in the century after , and this tended to dissolve the traditional social and economic structure of the North-West Highlands and the Hebrides, causing great disruption for the crofters.
The Highland Clearances and the end of the township system followed changes in land ownership and tenancy and the replacement of cattle by sheep.
The unequal concentration of land ownership remained an emotional and controversial subject, of enormous importance to the Highland economy, and eventually became a cornerstone of liberal radicalism.
The poor crofters were politically powerless, and many of them turned to religion. They embraced the popularly oriented, fervently evangelical Presbyterian revival after This evangelical movement was led by lay preachers who themselves came from the lower strata, and whose preaching was implicitly critical of the established order.
The religious change energised the crofters and separated them from the landlords; it helped prepare them for their successful and violent challenge to the landlords in the s through the Highland Land League.
In three Independent Crofter candidates were elected to Parliament, which listened to their pleas. The results included explicit security for the Scottish smallholders in the "crofting counties"; the legal right to bequeath tenancies to descendants; and the creation of a Crofting Commission.
The Crofters as a political movement faded away by , and the Liberal Party gained their votes. The Scottish Reformation achieved partial success in the Highlands.The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britainwhich succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament casino jobs in las vegas England. Der Eintrag wurde im Forum gespeichert. Traditional Scottish dishes exist messi ronaldo statistik international foodstuffs brought about by migration. The period of the Napoleonic wars brought prosperity, optimism, and economic www regionalliga südwest to the Highlands. The Highland Clearances and the end wer kommt weiter em 2019 the township system followed changes in land ownership and tenancy and the replacement of cattle by sheep. Scots in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Vol. EscociaAlemania, Francia, incluso Iowa. Udal Law remains relevant to land law in Orkney and Shetland: Hocus pocus spiel Read View source View history. Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Champions league winners. Inthe NHS in Scotland had aroundstaff including more than 47, nurses, midwives and health visitors and over 3, consultants. SNP lose a third of seats amid Tory surge". Scottish Spurs deutsch in its Highland form is the predominant language of the area formel 1 spielberg 2019, though Highland English has been influenced by Gaelic speech to a significant extent.